SUFFIXES

Note:  A suffix is usually added to the full form of a word ending in a cononant or an unaccented vowel.  An unaccented vowel is dropped before the suffix is added. Note that sometimes the spelling of a word undergoes a change for pronounciation purposes.  In some cases an accent is added for the same reason. Because of this you can not necessarily use this list for forming words, but rather for recognizing words.   This is not a complete list of suffixes, but is rather a list of some of the more common ones.

Suffix

Indicates

ada

equates to -ful or denotes a capacity of something

cucharilla = teaspoon una cucharada = a teaspoonful
ada, ida + past participle

forms a noun from a verb

salir = to exit salida = exit
ir = to go ida = departure
llegar = to arrive llegada = arrival

al, ar

denotes a grove, field or plantation

naranja = orange naranjal = orange grove
café = coffee cafetal = coffee plantation
olivo = olive olivar = olive grove
cito, cita, ito, ita,

size, affection, admiration, appreciation or pity

Juan = John Juanito = Johnny
abuelo = grandfather abuelito = dear grandfather
joven = young jovenita = young girl
libro = book librito = little book
pobre = poor pobrecito = poor fellow
mesa = table mesita = small table

dor, a + verb (subtract final letter)

indicate the performer of an action

bailar = to dance bailador = dancer
cantar = to sing cantador = singer
ganar = to win ganador = winner
trabajar = to work trabajador = worker
dizo (added to some adjectives) describes what someone or something is like
enojado = angry, cross enojadizo = irritable, easily annoyed
eda, edo denotes a place where things grow
árbol = tree arboleda = grove
álamo = poplar tree alameda = grove of poplar trees
eño denotes a likeness
águila = eagle aguileño = aquiline (eagle-like)
risa = smile risueño = smiling
ería

indicates the place where the article is made or sold

fruta = fruit frutería = fruit store
joya = jewlry joyería = jewlry store
leche = milk lechería = dairy or milk store
libro = book librería = book store
zapato = shoe zapatería = shoe store

ero, era

the maker, dealer or one in charge of something
el jardín = garden

jardinero

= gardener
el pastel = bakery pastelero = baker
el rancho = ranch ranchero = rancher
el zapato = shoe zapetero = shoemaker

ero, era

the container of an article
azúcar = sugar azúcaro = sugar bowl
leche = milk lechera = milk pitcher
sopa = soup sopera = soup tureen
= tea tetera = teapot
lápiz = pencil lapicero = pencil box

ez, eza, ura + adjective

forms an abstract noun

grande = great grandeza = greatness
limpio = clean limpieza = cleanliness
viejo = old vejez = old age
niño = child niñez = childhood
ancho = wide anchura = width
triste = sad tristeza = sadness
bravo = brave bravura = bravery
ía, ia refers to one of the humanities or sciences
geografía = geography
biología = biology
historía = history
Note:  You can form the professional name by dropping the ía, or ia and adding "o" or "a".
biología = biology biológo = biologist
fotografía = photography fotógrafo = photographer
filosofía = philosophy filósofo = philosopher

Note the addition of an accent on the second syllable

iento tells of a characteristic or to be like the root word
ceniza = ash ceniciento = ashen
hambre = hungry hambriento = starving
ísimo ending for a superlative
mucho = much muchísimo = very much
hermoso = beautiful hermosísimo = exceeding beautiful
izo means somewhat like the root word
rojo = red rojizo = reddish
enfermo = sick enfermizo = sickly

mento, miento + verb

forms an abstract noun

conocer = to know conocimiento = knowledge
sentir = to feel sentiemiento = feeling

o + name of a fruit

type of tree

manzana = apple manzano = apple tree
naranja = orange naranjo = orange tree
cereza = cherry cerezo = cherry tree

  Return to Words Page