COLLECTIVE NUMBERS, FRACTIONS & HALF

COLLECTIVE NUMBERS
un par - a pair
una decena - ten, group of ten
una docena - a dozen
una gruesa - a gross (144 or a dozen, dozen)
una veintena - a score (20)
un centenar - hundred
un millar - thousand
un millón - million

FRACTIONS

Note: You follow the collective numbers by "de" when used with a noun.

un par de zapatos

- a pair of shoes

una docena de huevos

- a dozen eggs
Note: you do not use "un par" with "pantalones" (pants, trousers).

Voy a comprar pantalones.

- I am going to buy a pair of pants.

In Spanish the cardinal numbers are used for the numerator of a fraction.

2/3

= dos tercios

3/4

= tres cuartos

From 1/4 through 10/10 the ordinal numbers are used for the denominator.   "Half" is translated by medio and "third" by tercio.

2/4

= dos cuartos
5/7 = cinco séptimos
9/10 = nueve décimos
1/2 = un medio
1/3 = un tercio
For fractions from 1/11, the denominator is formed by adding "-avo" to the cardinal numbers.  Except for "siete" and "nueve" the final vowel of the cardinal number is dropped before adding the ending.  In the fractions 11th through 15th, the "c" in the cardinal number changes to a "z" before "-avo".
1/11 = un onzavo
1/12 = un dozavo
1/13 = un trezavo
1/14 = un catorzavo
1/15 = un quinzavo
1/16 = un dieciseisavo
1/17 = un diecisieteavo
1/18 = un dieciochavo
1/19 = un diecinueveavo
1/20 = un veintavo
1/30 = un treintavo
1/40 = un cuarentavo
1/100 = un centavo (not cientavo)
Fractions may also be expressed by using "parte"
1/4 = la cuarta parte
2/3 = dos terceras partes
HALF
Medio = half
Mitad = half
Medio is an adjective, but sometimes can be used as an adverb
Compró media docena de rosas. - He brought a half dozen roses.  (Adjective)
medio dormido - half asleep (adverb)
Medio normally precedes the noun it modifies, but sometimes it may follow:
media hora - half (an) hour
dos horas y media - two and a half hours

Mitad is the noun that means "half".

Vendió la mitad de sus bienes - He sold half of his possessions.

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